The aporias of the Brahmin philosophical systems (in Polish)

Main Article Content

Marta Kudelska


The article presents the aporias that are found in classical Brahmin philosophical systems when their ontological assumptions are confronted with the fundamental metaphysical thesis formulated in the Upanishads. This thesis determines the way in which the absolute being is described: sat ekam advitiyam (existing one only, without a second). The wording considerably resembles Parmenides’ description of being. Later European history of philosophy shows various problems that appear in subsequent systems when we attempt to construct a coherent ontological system which includes the Parmenidean concept of being. The account presented is not strictly comparative, and it mostly analyses selected Indian systems. It shows analogous processes of the origination of key metaphysical ideas peculiar to given traditions. It also indicates significantly similar difficulties which are connected with assuming the Parmenidean understanding of absolute being in Europe, as well as the Upanishadic thesis in India.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kudelska, M. (2013). The aporias of the Brahmin philosophical systems (in Polish). Diametros, (36), 98-121.
Author Biography

Marta Kudelska, Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilizations

Marta Kudelska, professor
Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilizations
Jagiellonian University
Rynek Główny 34
31-010 Kraków


Bādarāyaṇa [1948] – Bādarāyaṇa, Brahma-sutras by Swami Vireswarananda, Advaita Ashrama Mayavati, Almora 1948.

Bādarāyaṇa [1995] – Bādarāyaṇa, Brahma-sutras, Śri bhasya by Swami Vireswarananda and Swami Adidewananda, Advaita Ashrama, Calcutta 1995.

Iśwarakriszna [2002] – Iśwarakriszna, Sankhjakarika tłum. Marzenna Jakubczak, [w:] Filozofia Wschodu, wybór tekstów, red. Marta Kudelska, Wydawnictwo UJ, Kraków 2002.

Kahn [2008] – Charles H. Kahn, Język i ontologia, Wydawnictwo Marek Derewiecki, Kęty 2008.

Kaṇāda [1995] – Kaṇāda, Vaiśeṣikasūtras, podsumowanie tłumaczenia Masaaki Satori, [w:] Encyklopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume II, ed. Karl H. Potter, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1995.

Kirk, Schofield [1999] – G.S. Kirk, J.E. Raven, M. Schofield, Filozofia przedsokratejska, studium krytyczne z wybranymi tekstami, tłum. Jacek Lang, PWN Warszawa, Poznań 1999.

Kudelska [2009] – Marta Kudelska, Dlaczego istnieje raczej „Ja” niż „to”?, Wydawnictwo UJ, Kraków 2009.

Larson, Bhattacharya [1987] – Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume IV, Sāṁkhya. A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy, ed. Gerald James Larson & Ram Shankar Bhattacharya, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1987.

Potter [1995] – Encyklopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume II, The Tradition of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika up to Gaṅgeśa, ed. Karl H. Potter, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1995.

Stróżewski [2003] – Władysław Stróżewski, Ontologia, Wydawnictwo Aureus, Wydawnictwo Znak, Kraków 2003.

Przy omawianiu sankhji posługuję się tekstem oryginalnym dostępnym na: [2.08.2012].
Przy omawianiu waiśesziki posługuję się tekstem sanskryckim dostępnym na: [2.08.2012].