Main Article Content
The above problem is discussed with the use of the example of selected canonical Upanishads. The analysis starts with a fragment from the Mundaka Upanishad (2.2.8): “When he [brahman] that is both high [para] and low [apara] is seen” (S. Sitarama Sastri’s translation). In my opinion, this very conjoining of the absolute and relative reality, which is considerably rare in the canonical texts, requires in-depth analysis. In the discussed texts, the para/apara dimensions of reality are strictly correlated with the states of consciousness in which they are experienced. Thus, in my discussion, I also consider whether all yoga adepts have always been talking about experiencing the four states of consciousness. I discuss the terms which denote the para and apara dimensions as well as the question whether the text indicates their hierarchy and, if this is the case, in what contexts and in what respect. I refer to the canonical Upanishads which belong to the Atharvaveda lineage, i.e. to Prashna, Mundaka, and Mandukya.
Gupta S.R. (1991), The Word Speaks to the Faustiam Man. A translation and interpretation of the Prastthānatrayī and Śankara`s bhāṣya for the participation of contemporary man, t. 1, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi.
Gupta S.R. (1995), The Word Speaks to the Faustiam Man. A translation and interpretation of the Prastthānatrayī and Śankara`s bhāṣya for the participation of contemporary man, t. 2, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi.
Kudelska M. (2004), Upaniszady, tłum. M. Kudelska, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków.
Zysk K.G. (2007), The Bodily Winds in Ancient India Revisited, „The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute” 2007: 105-115.
This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.