Patenting human genes (in Polish)

Gabriela Kawłatow

About author

Gabriela Kawłatow, student
Jagiellonian University
Department of Philosophy
ul. Grodzka 52
Pl-31-044 Kraków
e-mail: gabriela.kawlatow@gmail.com

Abstract


Over the past few years there has been much debate over the controversial concept of gene patents. Gene patents are a fundamental means of protecting the rights of inventors, mainly research centers and farmacutical firms, consisting of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state. Yet there is much controversy as to the appropriateness of patenting what appears to be a part of nature. Numerous legal, social, economical and ethical concerns have been raised about the effects of such patents on clinical medical practice and on research and development. This article examines existing Polish, European and American legal regulations concerning this issue, as well as the most common arguments raised for and against gene patents. It also suggests a few solutions to the discussed controversies.

Full Text:

PDF (In Polish)


References


  1. Timothy Caulfield, Do gene patents hurt research?, “Science Progress”, 29.10.2009; dostępne na: http://www.scienceprogress.org/2009/10/do-gene- patents-hurt-research/.
  2. Timothy Caulfield, Robert M. Cook- Deegan, F. Scott Kieff, John P. Walsh, Evidence and Anecdotes: An Analysis of Human Gene Patenting Controversies; “Nature Biotechnology” (24) 2006, s. 1091–1094.
  3. David Resnik , The human genome: common resource but not common heritage, [w:] M. Kothrals, R.J. Bogers, “Ethics for life scientists”, (5) 2005, s. 197-210.
  4. David Resnik, A Biotechnology Patent Pool: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?, “The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law” (3) 2003.
  5. L.S. Lehmann, J.C. Weeks, N. Klar, J.E. Garber, A population-based study of Ashkenazi Jewish women's attitudes toward genetic discrimi- nation and BRCA1/2 testing, “Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Human Genetics” (September-October) 2002, s. 346-352.
  6. J.E. Ferrell, Who Owns John Moore`s Spleen?, “Chicago Tribune”, 18.02.1990; dostępne na: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1990-02-18/features/9001140537_1_mo-cell-line-blood-cells-spleen.
  7. Michael Heller, The Tragedy of Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets, “Harvard Law Review” (111) 1997.
  8. Heidi Ledford, US government wants limits on gene patents, “Nature”, 2.11.2010.
  9. Julian Borger, Rush to patent genes stalls cures for disease, “The Guardian”, 15.12.1999; dostępne na: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/1999/dec/15/ medicalresearch.genetics.
  10. Kyle Jensen, Fiona Murray, Intellectual property landscape of the human genome, dostępne na: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/310/5746/239.summary.
  11. Prawo Własności Przemysłowej (Ustawa z dnia 30 czerwca 2000 r.).
  12. National Academy of Sciences, Patents, Material Transfers and Access to Research Inputs in Biomedical Research, 20.09.2005, dostępne na: http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=776&cf=8.
  13. Michael Crichton, Patenting life, “The New York Times”, 13.02.2007.
  14. Mark Pawlowski, Property in body parts and products of the human body, “Liverpool Law Review”, 20.05.2009.
  15. Konwencja o udzielaniu patentów europejskich [1973] – Konwencja o udzielaniu patentów europejskich (Konwencja o patencie europejskim), sporządzona w Monachium dnia 5 października 1973 r.

DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.13153/diam.32.2012.478

Article links:

Default URL: http://www.diametros.iphils.uj.edu.pl/index.php/diametros/article/view/478
Polish abstract URL: http://www.diametros.iphils.uj.edu.pl/index.php/diametros/article/view/478/pl
English abstract URL: http://www.diametros.iphils.uj.edu.pl/index.php/diametros/article/view/478/en

Share:






All works are licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.